The cost was high and Britain no longer had the wealth to maintain an empire, so it granted independence to almost all its possessions.The new states typically joined the Commonwealth of Nations.
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The Act of Union 1800 added the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The first decades were marked by Jacobite risings which ended with defeat for the Stuart cause at Culloden in 1746.
In 1927 the United Kingdom changed its formal title to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, usually shortened to Britain and (after 1945) to the United Kingdom or UK.
In the Second World War, in which the Soviet Union, China and the US joined Britain as Allied powers, Britain and its Empire fought a successful war against Germany, Italy and Japan.
England and Scotland also continued to each have its own system of education.